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UPS, or Uninterrupted Power Supply is a device to keep the output power supply on for a limited period in case of input power loss. The battery is actually a part of UPS.

UPS commonly take in and supplies single-phase AC (110/230V AC) and essentially consists of

  • Input single-phase AC to DC rectifier
  • Battery
  • Single-phase DC to AC inverter

The Battery is connected at the DC part so that in case of loss of input power, the battery supplies the DC for DC-AC conversion. With input power. available, the battery gets charged parallelly.

There are different types of UPS available. The easiest to understand variants are

  • Offline UPS - Primary supply is the line. In case of power failure, the automatic changeover to battery backup through a static switch
  • Online UPS - Primary supply is the converter line. In case of power failure, the changeover to battery backup without any switching

The size of the battery decides how long a backup will be.

central battery can be useful as a backup but it needs to be charged by a separate battery charger circuit and need to have its own inverter to be used as a general power supply.